In addition to the five core OD theories there are other theories that a solid OD practitioners must understand to build on their theoretical foundation for practice. Good grounding in theory is essential for every OD practitioner. The better you understand the theory, the better you will understand the complex and intricate nature of the OD process and OD tool kit.
Field Theory in Brief
Developed by Lewin, Field theory is an social science approach which explores the social environment as a dynamic field that impacts individual action and consciousness in interactive way. By changing elements of the social environment, and in the case of OD, the organisational environment, the individual experiences particular types of psychological forces. But the relationship is not all one way. Field Theory also argues that the psychological state of an individual influences the environment that they inhabit.
Therefore the individual and the organisation coexist and are mutually interdependent and the behaviour of an individual is related both to an individual’s personal characteristics and to the social situation in which they find themselves.
According to field theory, if change is to take place, the organisation as a whole has to be taken into account. If only part of the organisation is considered, only a partial picture of what is really happening within the organisation is likely to develop.
By changing one part of the organisation the intervention will affect another part of the organisation as by product of the changes that have been made. Changes involve an interaction between the field and the state of other organisational elements. The field effect involves a ‘force’ will transfer the energy of change in one area to other areas of the organisation.
- The employee and the organisation are interdependent
- Behaviour is a product of both person and their environment
- Both the individual and the organisation are important in determining the outcome of any OD intervention
- It seeks to explain why change occurs in the states of some parts of the organisation that are not the focus of a change effort
- The organisational environment (the field) is organised and its responses to change are not random.
- The field itself is not measurable therefore its effects can only be measured by the outcomes.
Applying Field Theory in an OD Intervention
- Be aware that your presence and behaviour causes a disturbance in the field and make sure your involvement has a positive impact.
- Your diagnostic analysis should focus on the organisation as a whole from which are differentiated the component parts
- Ensure that your intervention design is holistic
- Build into your design what other elements within the organisation will change as a consequence of the intervention – remember your intervention does no occur in a vacuum.
- Utilise the ‘force’ in the organisation in developing your intervention, keep in mind how a small change in one area can have a ripple effect that will move the change process forward positively in other area and help ensure change is sticky.
- In evaluating your intervention ensure that you focus on the organisation as whole to monitor unexpected changes in state.
- Align the goals of the intervention with the wider organisational goals to ensure that there is congruence between the intervention and the directional forces within the organisation.
- Network and onboard individuals from all parts of the organisation into the OD intervention to create a disturbance in the force throughout the organisation.