Human Process Interventions
The following interventions deal with interpersonal relationships and group dynamics.
- T Groups: The basic T Group brings ten to fifteen strangers together with a professional trainer to examine the social dynamics that emerge from their interactions.
- Process Consultation: This intervention focuses on interpersonal relations and
- social dynamics occurring in work groups.
- Third Party Interventions: This change method is a form of process consultation
- aimed at dysfunctional interpersonal relations in organizations.
- Team Building: This intervention helps work groups become more effective in
- accomplishing tasks.
The following Interventions deal with human processes that are more system wide than individualistic or small-group oriented.
- Organization Confrontation Meeting: This change method mobilize organization members to identify problems, set action targets, and begin working on problems.
- Intergroup Relations: These interventions are designed to improve interactions among different groups or departments in organizations.
- Large-group Interventions: These interventions involve getting abroad variety of stakeholders into a large meeting to clarify important values, to develop new ways of working, to articulate a new vision for the organization, or to solve pressing organizational problems.
- Grid Organization Development: This normative intervention specifies a particular way to manage an organization.
These interventions deal with an organization’s technology (for examples its task methods and job design) and structure (for example, division of labor and hierarchy).
These interventions are rooted in the disciplines of engineering, sociology, and psychology and in the applied fields of socio-technical systems and organization design. Practitioners place emphasis both on productivity and human fulfillment.
- Structural Design: This change process concerns the organization’s division of labour – how to specialize task performances. Diagnostic guidelines exist to determine which structure is appropriate for particular organizational environments, technologies, and conditions.
- Downsizing: This intervention reduces costs and bureaucracy by decreasing the size of the organization through personnel layoffs, organization redesign, and outsourcing.
- Re-engineering: This recent intervention radically redesigns the organization’s core work processes to create tighter linkage and coordination among the different tasks
- Parallel Structures
- High-involvement Organizations (HIO’s)
- Total Quality Management
- Work design: This refers to OD interventions aimed at creating jobs, and work groups that generate high levels of employee fulfilment and productivity.
Human Resource Management Interventions
- Goal Setting: This change program involves setting clear and challenging goals. It attempts to improve organization effectiveness by establishing a better fit between personal and organizational objectives.
- Performance Appraisal: This intervention is a systematic process of jointly assessing work-related achievements, strengths and weaknesses,
- Reward Systems: This intervention involves the design of organizational rewards to improve employee satisfaction and performance.
- Career Planning and development: It generally focuses on managers and professional staff and is seen as a way of improving the quality of their work life.
- Managing workforce diversity: Important trends, such as the increasing number of women, ethnic minorities, and physically and mentally challenged people in the workforce, require a more flexible set of policies and practices.
- Employee Wellness: These interventions include employee assistance programs (EAPs) and stress management.
These interventions link the internal functioning of the organization to the larger environment and transform the organization to keep pace with changing conditions.
- Integrated Strategic Change: It argues that business strategies and organizational systems must be changed together in response to external and internal disruptions. A strategic change plan helps members manage the transition between a current strategy and organization design and the desired future strategic orientation.
- Trans organization development: This intervention helps organizations to enter into alliances, partnerships and joint ventures to perform tasks or solve problems that are too complex for single organizations to resolve
- Merger and Acquisition Integration: This intervention describes how OD practitioners can assist two or more organizations to form a new entity.
- Culture Change: This intervention helps organizations to develop cultures (behaviours, values, beliefs and norms) appropriate to their strategies and environments.
- Self-designing organizations: This change program helps organizations gain the capacity to alter themselves fundamentally. It is a highly participative process, involving multiple stakeholders in setting strategic directions and designing and implementing appropriate structures and processes.
- Organization learning and knowledge management.