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Archive for July, 2013

Organizational Psychology – Learning, Training and Development

Answers the Question

What forms of training and development are available?

How it Began

To remain viable, today’s workforce must continually develop new knowledge, skills and attitudes in order to adapt to changing technological and environmental demands.  The concepts of learning, training and development are integrally intertwined.  Evidence suggests that a fraction of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) learned and trained actually transfer to the work environment.


Behaviourism suggests that our behaviour is a learnt response.  John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to explain all aspects of human psychology.  Everything from speech to emotional responses were simply patterns of stimulus and response. Watson denied completely the existence of the mind or consciousness.

Watson believed that all individual differences in behaviour were due to different experiences of learning. He famously said:

Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and the race of his ancestors”. (Watson, 1924, p. 104)

Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. There are three stages to classical conditioning. In each stage the stimuli and responses are given special scientific terms:

  • Stage 1: Before Conditioning: In this stage, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditioned response (UCR) in an organism. In basic terms this means that a stimulus in the environment has produced a behavior / response which is unlearned (i.e. unconditioned) and therefore is a natural response which has not been taught. In this respect no new behavior has been learned yet. This stage also involves another stimulus which has no affect on a person and is called the neutral stimulus (NS). The NS could be a person, object, place etc. The neutral stimulus in classical conditioning does not produce a response until it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
  • Stage 2: During Conditioning: During this stage a stimulus which produces no response (i.e. neutral) is associated with the unconditioned stimulus at which point it now becomes known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Often during this stage the UCS must be associated with the CS on a number of occasions, or trials, for learning to take place. However, one trail learning can happen on certain occasions when it is not necessary for an association to be strengthened over time (such as being sick after food poisoning or drinking too much alcohol).
  • Stage 3: After Conditioning: Now the conditioned stimulus (CS) has been associated with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to create a new conditioned response (CR).

David Kolb published his learning styles model in 1984 from which he developed his learning style inventory.  Kolb’s experiential learning theory works on two levels: a four stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles.  Much of Kolb’s theory is concerned with the learner’s internal cognitive processes.  Kolb states that learning involves the acquisition of abstract concepts that can be applied flexibly in a range of situations.  In Kolb’s theory, the impetus for the development of new concepts is provided by new experiences.

Kolb’s experiential learning style theory is typically represented by a four stage learning cycle in which the learner ‘touches all the bases’:

1. Concrete Experience – (a new experience of situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation of existing experience).

2. Reflective Observation (of the new experience. Of particular importance are any inconsistencies between experience and understanding).

3. Abstract Conceptualization (Reflection gives rise to a new idea, or a modification of an existing abstract concept).

4. Active Experimentation (the learner applies them to the world around them to see what results).

Effective learning is seen when a person progresses through a cycle of four stages: of (1) having a concrete experience followed by (2) observation of and reflection on that experience which leads to (3) the formation of abstract concepts (analysis) and generalizations (conclusions) which are then (4) used to test hypothesis in future situations, resulting in new experiences.

Kolb (1975) views learning as an integrated process with each stage being mutually supportive of and feeding into the next. It is possible to enter the cycle at any stage and follow it through its logical sequence.

However, effective learning only occurs when when a learner is able to execute all four stages of the model. Therefore, no one stage of the cycle is an effective as a learning procedure on its own.

Kolb’s learning theory (1975) sets out four distinct learning styles, which are based on a four-stage learning cycle (see above).

Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style. Various factors influence a person’s preferred style.  For example, social environment, educational experiences, or the basic cognitive structure of the individual.

Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate ‘choices’ that we make, which Kolb presented as lines of axis, each with ‘conflicting’ modes at either end:

A typical presentation of Kolb’s two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it).

Knowing a person’s (and your own) learning style enables learning to be orientated according to the preferred method. That said, everyone responds to and needs the stimulus of all types of learning styles to one extent or another – it’s a matter of using emphasis that fits best with the given situation and a person’s learning style preferences.

Key Terminology

Learning – The acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, practice, or study, or by being taught.  Learning refers specifically to an intervention using training content such as training materials which is delivered or guided by an instructor. The desired outcome of training is a specific change in behaviour.

Training – The action of teaching a person or animal a particular skill or type of behaviour.  An intervention using training content such as training materials which is delivered or guided by an instructor. The desired outcome of training is a specific change in behaviour.

Development – The process of developing or being developed. A specified state of growth or advancement.  The act, process or experience of gaining knowledge or skills with a view to application in the context of an organisation.

Education – the act or process of acquiring knowledge. Education does not simply train people to perform specific tasks.

In Brief

In a rapidly changing and increasingly knowledge-based economy, the intangible value that organizations hold, including the skills, knowledge and attributes and talent potential that employee’s hold are an increasing source of competitive advantage for organisations. This is particularly true of professionals who operate in a global and highly dynamic role.

Historically, Training, Learning and Development in the workplace has applied the classical approach of the “training” model of instructor led, classroom based training.  Over the past twenty years there has been an adoption of a wider approach to development focused on translating into tangible operational benefits.  It has also been recognised that individuals have different learning styles, and that the objectives of any learning process would heavily influence the methodology used.

Importantly however, the most effective way to develop people is quite different from conventional skills training, which many employees regard quite negatively. The most effective way to develop people is instead to enable learning and personal development, with all that this implies.

As the workplace changes, new specialisms will emerge and new skills will be valued. It is expected that the roles may become more polarised – moves towards specialisms in some areas, moves to generalisation in others with increased cross functional activity. Increasing complexity driven by globalisation and regulation will drive this change.

New challenges and risks will emerge to question the knowledge of employees in a highly globalized, fast moving technologically connected economy. In response the individual and organizations will be required to more regularly update skills and knowledge. Those organizations and individuals committed to learning and development will therefore be best placed to take advantage of the emerging opportunities.

These developments have resulted in a wider range of tools at the disposal of organisations to impart knowledge, educate their employees, apply learning undertaken to meet organisational objectives and further develop the competencies employees hold.

What does this mean for Organization Development?

Training, Learning and Development is extremely important to both individuals and organizations. From an individuals perspective, it is vital to maintain or enhance your knowledge, skills and behaviours in order to meet business objectives.

There is a positive correlation between the competencies of each individual employee and the long term growth and productivity of organisations. Well designed and executed learning and development can be a powerful recruitment and retention tool because investment in developing employees demonstrates that the organisation values its people.From the employee’s perspective, the provision of development opportunities assists with the achievement of performance objectives.

Learning and Development provides a framework to help organizations understand what new skills and knowledge can be acquired, and how this can be applied in the work environment. It gives individuals greater autonomy over their career and development, and can provide a motivating influence.

There are some guiding principles that organisations will benefit from when developing effective training, learning and development strategies and programmes. The core principles are:

  • Obtain senior executive buy-in – It is vital to obtain and demonstrate senior level support for the development of your people for L&OD to support the business effectively. Benefits of this support will include greater employee engagement as employees understand how their individual activity links back to overall business goals.
  • Align L&OD activity with individual, team and organisational objectives – All Development needs to be business led – individual activity must be aligned to business goals both in the long and short term. This can be achieved by developing a clear L&OD strategy with objectives cascading from the human resources strategy. This should support operational and strategic objectives.
  • Utilise an effective mix of L&D activities – Recognising that people learn in different ways and that different learning is best achieved with different methods is the first step in designing an effective programme. Providing a range of learning opportunities will help. These may include: training courses, coaching, project work, secondments, self development and e-learning.
  • Co-ordinate the provision of L&D activities to ensure economies of scale – L&OD, like all other business activities, should be planned and linked to business requirements – unfortunately this is not always the case. With the help of a clear and agreed L&OD Strategy all activities can be linked back to business goals.
  • Measure the outputs of the L&OD process – To measure outputs it is first essential to understand the business need which triggered the L&OD intervention. Outputs can be measured on four levels with increasing value: the reaction of participants, the increase in knowledge / skills, the extent of improvement in behaviours and capabilities, the results in terms of effect on the business.
  • Undertaking a cost–benefit analysis / ROI – The ultimate goal when evaluating training is to measure Return On Investment. This is notoriously difficult to achieve as business improvements can rarely be linked back directly and exclusively to one activity, e.g. provision of L&OD opportunities. Nevertheless, ROI analysis should be attempted and used to support the business case for L&OD.

Organizational Psychology – Performance Management

Answers the Question

What is meant by job performance and what are the core elements of performance management?

How it Began

Organization Psychology focuses on assessing individual differences and developing a deeper understanding of the person, as opposed to simply the context within which an individual is operating.   Various topics that are examined in performance management are the individual skills required for a particular job and how individual differences influence an individual’s work performance. A goal of performance management is to improve organizational performance by placing the right people in the right jobs, thus enhancing the fit between the individual and the organization.  Performance Management covers such topics as selection, training, performance measurement, and evaluation.Performance management is more than an annual performance review meeting between a supervisor and employee, instead it includes ongoing coaching, feedback, and support from the supervisor.

Performance Management

Key Terminology

Performance Management – A continuous process of identifying, measuring, and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization.

Job Performance – Something that People actually do and can be observed including those actions or behaviours that are relevant to the organization’s goals and that can be measured in terms of each person’s proficiency

Contextual Performance – Organizational Citizenship behaviours includes personal support, organizational support and conscientious initiative.

Task Performance – Goal-directed activities that are under that individual’s control.

Grit – a positive, non-cognitive trait, based on an individual’s passion for a particular long-term goal or end state coupled with a powerful motivation to achieve the objective.

In Brief

A central premise of performance management systems is that individual (and team) goals need to be closely aligned with higher level organizational goals.  At an individual level, goal setting is also an important element of effective performance management..  Perhaps the most central tenet of goal setting theory, illustrated in hundreds of studies, is that specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance than “do your best” goals.

There has been a paradigm shift from thinking of performance appraisal as a discrete event to a continuous process of performance management in which coaching is inherent in the process.  This draws away from the traditional appraisal research focused on measurement issues towards examining how job performance can be enhanced.

The management of performance is now being related to key issues such as the physical and mental well-being of employees. A meta-analysis of selection methods found that general mental ability was the best overall predictor of job performance and training performance.

But intelligence isn’t everything.  Motivation is another key component of job performance. Achievement motivation refers to a person’s drive to accomplish, to learn skills and concepts, to be in charge, and for quickly reaching a top standard (Murray, 1938). Those who are highly motivated to achieve more are more likely to be successful in realising their goals.

Discipline and talent are important. Simon (1998) coined the concept of “The 10-year rule”—the notion that those who are top in their fields spend 10 years of full-time, highly invested practice. Top scholars, students, and athletes have all been found to be talented, but also incredibly self-disciplined (Bloom, 1985).  Research is finding that self-discipline matters more than intelligence (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005, 2006).  In a longitudinal study of eighth-grade students, self-discipline measured in the fall accounted for more than twice as much variance as IQ in final grades, high school selection, school attendance, hours spent doing homework, hours spent watching television (inversely), and the time of day students began their homework. The effect of self-discipline on final grades held even when controlling for first-marking-period grades, achievement-test scores, and measured IQ. These findings suggest a major reason for students falling short of their intellectual potential: their failure to exercise self-discipline (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005, 2006).

Duckworth & Seligman further contend that equally talented people are separated by their grit, and the fervour and dedication they have for a long-term goal.  An individuals’ perseverance of effort develops the fortitude required to overcome obstacles or challenges that lay within a gritty individual’s path to accomplishment, and serves as a driving force in achievement realisation.

Commonly associated concepts include “perseverance,” “hardiness,” “resilience,”ambition,” and “need for achievement.” These constructs can be conceptualized as individual differences and have been studied in psychology since 1907, when William James challenged the field to further investigate how certain individuals are capable of accessing richer trait reservoirs, enabling them to accomplish more than the average person. Duckworth and colleagues (2007) believe this dual-component of grit to be a crucial differentiator from similar constructs. Grit is conceptualized as a stable trait that does not require immediate positive feedback. Individuals high in grit are able to maintain their determination and motivation over long periods of time despite experiences with failure and adversity. Their passion and commitment toward the long-term objective is the overriding factor that provides the stamina required to “stay the course” amid challenges and setbacks. Essentially, the grittier person has the fortitude for winning the marathon, not the sprint.

What does this mean for Organization Development?

Effective performance management systems offer many potential advantages.  These include: greater clarity about organizational goals, as well as the behaviours and results required for successful employees’ understanding of their strengths and weaknesses (and hence valuable developmental activities); increasing employees’ motivation, competence, and self esteem; better distinguishing between good and poor performers and thereby increasing the fairness of remuneration and reward decisions; protecting the organization from lawsuits; and facilitating organizational change.  Ineffective performance management systems have the potential to waste time and money, damage relationships, decrease motivation and job satisfaction, increase employee turnover, create perceptions of unfairness and thereby increase the risks of litigation.

The belief that behaviour must be understood from the point of view of the individual and the context within which the individual is behaving. Kurt Lewin’s famous statement that behaviour is a function of the person and the environment is the foundation on which OD operates.

Instead of focusing solely on the individual, OD emphasises the impact that social forces have on performance and the factors that result in similar individual behaviour across situations. A goal of OD is to ultimately improve organizational performance through the creation of a suitable social environment by focusing on such topics as motivation, rewards and recognition, leadership, group processes, conflict resolution, organizational culture, organizational change, and organizational performance.

In addition to analysing behaviour from the point of view of both the individual and the environment, it is important to utilise more than one perspective when completing an OD diagnostic of an organization.  It is important that an OD consultant examines organizational issues at the individual, the group, and the organizational levels. At the individual level the diagnosis might cover such areas as individual differences, motivation, and diversity. The group level might emphasises groups and teams and the dynamics involved and the organizational level might examine elements such as leadership, organizational culture, organizational change, and organizational effectiveness.  Each of these three levels must be taken into consideration when examining an organizational problem or issue so that it is possible to plan and intervention at the level(s) which is/are the most relevant to improving the overall performance of the organization.


Organisational Psychology – Work Design

Answer the Question:

What is the psychological impact of work design?

How it Began?

Terkel (1972) described work as “a search for daily meaning as well as daily bread, for recognition as well as cash, for astonishment rather than torpor, in short for a sort of life rather than a Monday to Friday sort of dying.  Perhaps immorality is part of the quest.”

There exist a highly diverse body of scientific concepts and findings about work organizations and the people who operate them. This diversity reflects the many problems that modern industry and commerce present for scientific study. For both practical and scientific purposes it isoften necessary to isolate problems such as work design for human convenience, job evaluation, selection, incentive schemes, primary group organization, supervision, and management organization. At the same time, most specialists agree that these problems are interrelated – beyond a certain point the solution of one kind of problem depends upon solving some of the others.

Square Peg in a Round Hole_0565

The collective act of working creates and sustains whole communities and shapes cultures on a social level.  Work activities exert a powerful influence on how people think, feel, behave, and relate to one another.  Work can have both a positive and a negative effect.

Research on Employee motivation contains considerable evidence that job design can influence satisfaction, motivation and job performance. It influences them primarily because it affects the relationship between the employee’s expectancy that increased performance will lead to rewards and the preference of different rewards for the individual.  For example, Fredrick Herzberg developed the Two Factor Theory: Hygiene Factors and Motivational Factors

Globalization and new technology continue to change what work we do and the way that we work. Characteristic content of tasks, jobs and roles performed by workers continue to evolve, not simply in regards to the shift toward knowledge work but the blurring of the lines between managerial and non-managerial work and the removal of boundaries between work and non-work activity.

Outsourcing has relocated low skilled and semi skilled manufacturing to developing economies whilst in developed economies the majority of the labour market are employed in the services sector.  Changes to the nature of work, and how work and jobs impact people, highlight the need to investigate novel approaches to the design of work.

Key Terminology

Work Design – Task, Job and Work role characteristics

Job Design – Content, Structure and organization of tasks and activities that are performed by an individual on a day-to-day basis in order to generate work products.

Role Design – Recurrent behaviours expected of a person occupying a particular position.

In Brief

The expanded focus on both job and role design has become necessary in order to adequately describe and assess the impact of changes to technology, work and patterns of working.  The characteristic content and pattern of work, as it affects workers, emerges not solely from the immediate somewhat-fixed demands of the task environment, but also from the dynamic physical, social, and organizational context in which work is performed.

Most jobs can be seen as comprising both prescribed and predetermined tasks and activities, typically those that need to be done in order to create or transform work products, and discretionary and/or emergent components.  It also recognizes that, in most work settings, matching a person to a job is a decision that involves considering not just his or her capacity to perform particular tasks, but also to occupy particular roles.

The aims of work design are to improve job satisfaction, to improve through-put, to improve quality and to reduce employee problems (e.g., grievances, absenteeism).

What does this mean to Organization Development?

Problems of task performance, supervision,etc., have the character of part problems. Thus, the analysis of the characteristics of the organisation as a holistic system has strategic significance for our understanding of many specific work related problems. The more we know about these systems, the more we can identify what is relevant to a particular problem and detect problems missed by the conventional framework of problem analysis.

Organizational Development methodology recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. Socio-technical Systems Theory recognizes both the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of organizational structure and processes. Technical is not limited to material technology. The focus is on procedures and related knowledge,

Sociotechnical theory therefore is about joint optimization, with a shared emphasis on achievement of both excellence in technical performance and quality in people’s work lives based on designing different kinds of organisation, ones in which the relationships between socio and technical elements lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing.

Depending on the organisations primary agenda, sociotechnical principles can be abused as merely instruments for achieving primarily economic objectives. If Humanistic objectives have no value in themselves they may be adopted if the achievement produces a better performance from employees leading to the fulfilment of the economic objectives.

For the OD practitioner, the main task of work design is to enhance the quality of working life and the job satisfaction of the employee. In turn the achievement of these objectives will enhance productivity and yield added value to the organization.

Organizational Psychology – Personnel Selection

Answers the Question

How can personnel selection ensure sustainable organizational effectiveness through the acquisition of human capital

How it Began

There has been over 100 years of research, and there is a great deal of psychological understanding regarding how to best identify KSAO requirements for jobs, the development of methods to assess KSAOs and using the scores from assessments to make appropriate selection and recruitment decisions.  But by itself, this research does not ensure that selection delivers sustainable organizational effectiveness.  In 1998 Schmidt and Hunter summarized the relationships between different selection predictors such as cognitive ability and conscientiousness with job performance, but ignored the consideration of sustainable organizational effectiveness.

Personnel Selection

In 1964 McNemar called for ‘social usefulness’ that is how individual differences such as intelligence contributed to real world outcomes.  In the 1970s research by Schmidt, Hunter and colleagues led to validity generalization and meta-analysis, which had a profound effect on personnel selection and practice.  Validity generalization ended the situational-specificity hypothesis to the point that professional guideliness sucha s SIOP Principles (2003) now explicitly recognize the role of meta-analysis as a validation strategy.

In the 1980s the conceptualization and measurement of job performance, and research addressing a number of fundamental selection issues were major contributions.   Followed into the 1990s by the reemergence of personality and the validity-diversity dilemma.  Today the focus is on the performance domain, such as counterproductive work behaviours, types of predictor methods and constructs.

Key Terminology

  • Personnel selection – the process used to hire or promote individuals.
  • Human Capital – the aggregate of individual knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics. (KSAOs)
  • Knowledge Worker – employees whose primary contribution is based on ideas and information
  • Predictive Validity – the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure.
  • Recruitment – attracting applicants through advertising, word-of-mouth or other methods; it can be used to include the pre-screening phase of selection;
  • Selection – employment decisions made by responsible members of an organization, usually choosing between multiple candidates, and using one or more methods of candidate assessment. It can include the decision of the candidate whether to accept or reject an offer of employment made by an organization.
  • Distributive justice – whether the outcome is seen to be fair and appropriate
  • Procedural justice – whether candidates perceive the process followed to reach the outcome to be fair and whether the selection process is viewed as being job-related.
  • Interpersonal justice – whether candidates perceive that they are dealt with professionally and sensitively during the selection process
  • Informational justice – whether candidates perceive that good quality information and timely feedback is given during and after the process

In Brief

Unlike other forms of capital, human capital cannot be owned by an organization.  Individual employees can, and do, choose to withhold effort, switch jobs or still ideas and take them to a competitor.  With the advent of cross functional working and project teams, jobs are more fluid than at any other time, and once a project is completed the team disband. There is also a recognition that globalization and technology, such as the internet, has transformed the workplace, making the world flat and meaning that human capital no longer has to be in the same geographical area, exposing people to diverse cultures and languages.

Societal changes, such as an aging workforce, more diverse workforce and a global economy has increased the importance of human capital, popularized by Mckinsey in 1997 with the publication of the ‘War for Talent’

Selection is a two-way process; organizations choose employees, but employees also choose an employer. If selection is to be effective then both of these processes must be working effectively. At a human level, Martin et al. (2005) explore some of the issues which arise during the selection process for applicants, which could be seen as being under the umbrella of ‘psychological factors’ including self-esteem and stress. Their research suggests that, for unsuccessful applicants stress levels were higher and self-esteem levels lower than for successful applicants.

What does this mean for Organization Development?

There is a danger that best practice selection methods can be viewed as a panacea, or a way of guaranteeing an effective workforce. This is not the case. No selection method is perfect. The very best personnel selection methods can promise is that we can make use information gathered to make some reasonably accurate predictions about future performance. In this sense, personnel selection might be viewed as a risk management procedure that helps organisations to avoid recruiting unsuitable applicants.

Care must be taken to manage candidates’ perceptions of the selection process because they impact upon candidates’ views of the organization and the likelihood of accepting job offers. If a selection process that identifies the best candidates discourages them from accepting the job offer, it is of little use.  This issue can be minimised through the proper design and execution of selection processes.

Work performance is shaped by a huge number of factors. Two equally able employees might perform differently because one has a very competent manager, while the other has an ineffective manager. Employees may receive different levels of exposure to learning and development opportunities. Some may work in a well functioning team, while others find themselves working with colleagues who are dysfunctional or ineffective. Changes in processes and systems might make the job easier for some employees but not others. Over time, the job that the successful candidate is required will also change, possibly changing to something that the candidate is not suited for.

It is clear that organizations have a wide variety of selection tools to choose from, and must consider multiple criteria (i.e. technical qualities and candidate perceptions) when devising a selection process. If a selection method has good predictive validity for a particular job role, in a particular organisation it might be that this validity does not transfer to other organisations or other job roles. Therefore in order to establish whether a selection tool works well across different situations, meta-analysis should be used to draw general conclusions about the effectiveness of a selection tool. This type of analysis also helps to identify the particular features of a selection tool that seem best, and provide guidance on how to make it work better and those features that might harm its effectiveness.

An effective workforce is not just the product of effective selection. Depending on the roles required, work performance will be determined by different OD intervention.  For example an organisation may require highly skilled engineers in a particular niche area. Given that this role requires a rare set of skills, it will be very difficult to recruit people who already have those skills. Therefore, learning and development will be more important to achieving the desired outcome. Selection might focus on identifying the people with the potential to develop such skills. It might also be that there are some engineering tasks that are so difficult that the majority of the working population are not able to complete them, even after training. This might indicate that equipment re-design or task re-design is required, and selection would focus on identifying those with the aptitude to work with the re-designed equipment or task.

From an Organizational Development perspective it is crucial that selection processes are not considered in isolation from the organisational context, and the constraints and opportunities it presents.

Recommended Reading

  • Cook, M. (2009). Personnel selection: Adding value through people. (5th Edition). London: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Robertson, I. T., & Smith, M. (2001). Personnel selection. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 441-472.
  • Sackett, P. R., and Lievens, F. (2008). Personnel selection. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 419-450.
  • Hough, L. M., Oswald, F. L. (2000). Personnel selection: Looking towards the future – remembering the past. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 631-664.